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Growing up in Nicoya, Costa Rica as the son of a botanist and anthropologist, Jonathan Sequeira comes by his love of nature honestly. After heading off to Sri Lanka to get his PhD in Alternative Medicine, he headed back to his native country, where he balances life as a naturalist guide with breeding poison dart frogs and growing medicinal plants on his property in Sarapiqui. Here, we catch up with IE’s beloved expedition leader to learn more about his passion for plants, animals and people.
Tell me about your childhood in Costa Rica.
I was born in the town of Nicoya in 1966. My father was a botanist and anthropologist, and my mother grew up in the countryside and was a nature lover. In 1977, I heard concerns about deforestation in my province. Somebody from the Cousteau crew said, “If we keep cutting the forest, by the year 2000 Guanacaste will be a desert.” I knew at that moment that I wanted to be involved in the conservation of nature.
You went to Sri Lanka to get a PhD in Alternative Medicine, specifically the use of medicinal plants from the rainforest. What drew you to that field of study?
My study of medicinal plants was probably influenced by my father, who did some work for different universities. The Open International University for Complementary Medicine in Sri Lanka allowed me to continue my studies in Costa Rica, as it focused on plants from the rainforest. I was inspired by how plants found a way to defend themselves by developing compounds that stop predation. Through understanding the potential medicinal properties of those substances, we can find a way to improve our quality of life.
What are some interesting examples of medicinal plants in Costa Rica?
1) Almendro, or Beach almond (Terminalia catappa) - This non-native ornamental tree has fruits that are one of the most important sources of food for the scarlet macaw. The leaves are astringent and therefore antidiarrheal; they have antimicrobial and antifungal agents; and some substances found on the leaves have effects on HIV replication.
2) Carao, or Sandal (Cassia grandis Fabaceae) - This medium-sized tree is known for the honey-like liquid from the large bean-shaped fruit, which can be used to treat anemia. For best results, it shouldn’t be mixed with milk.
3) Papaya (Carica papaya) - The sap of the unripe fruit is used as a meat tenderizer, because of its papain enzyme. A test on an injection of the enzyme into the spine to dissipate pains of the intervertebral disc had a 60% success rate, and a minimum risk of allergy. But the FDA is not approving the use of products with papain until more research has been done.
4) Indio Desnudo, or Naked Indian (Bursera simarouba) - This common tree secretes a natural resin that can be used to stop blood flow from wounds. The sap can also be used as an antidote for poison-wood. You can also use it in a tea for rheumatism or in a bath for back pain, and a poultice of crushed leaves can soothe bee and wasp stings.
How did you wind up becoming a naturalist guide?
Being a naturalist guide is a way to teach how important it is to preserve nature, and my love for nature have been part of my life since I was a child. I started guiding in Guayabo National Monument as a volunteer. It was there that I started learning about plants and birds, as well as the archeology of the area. After that I went to Corcovado National Park to work in a biological station call Marenco, where representatives of International Expeditions first contacted me. Later on, I started working for them.
You have a farm in Sarapiqui, where you breed Poison Dart Frogs. Can you talk about the environmental challenges facing amphibians around the world, and what their struggle tells us about the planet?
In 1988, during my first visit to Monteverde, I was lucky to see and photograph Bufo periglenes and Atelopus sp, a toad and frog species that later went extinct. Later on I learned about the illegal international traffic of frogs to supply a market in some countries in Europe. I tried to breed frogs in captivity to supply that market and send the price of those frogs down to the point of stopping the illegal trade. But I could not get permission from the government to manipulate specimens of endangered species. So what I am doing right now is keeping a piece of land in the rainforest, where I protect frog habitat. It is like my own little reserve, with monkeys frogs, birds, etc.
What do you hope IE guests will take away from their Costa Rica tours in terms of knowledge and experience?
I see guiding like converting people into a new religion. It’s a great pleasure when people tell me, “I will go home inspired and appreciating nature, being more alert about what we have in our backyards at home.” Hearing that they will teach their children, and that this experience has changed their life… these kinds of comments make me enjoy my work even more. It’s my goal for all our guests!
Travel to Costa Rica with Jonathan!
Join IE's Master Naturalist in Costa Rica. International Expeditions has offered small-group Costa Rica tours for 35 years. Choose between naturalist-guided adventures encompanssing the natural and cultural history of Costa Rica, or enjoy our bespoke journeys, ideal for families.
Amazon River cruise Expedition leader Freddy Avalos is reporting from our small-group excursions this week.
We’ve had wonderful weather in the Amazon Basin this week! The whole day on the lake was so beautiful, perfectly reflecting the trees. Our nighttime excursion on the Ucayali River allowed our small group to do some stargazing. The clear sky made it possible to see the Milky Way.
One of our travelers this week in an expert in bats. Working with the other naturalists, we found a group of long nose bats. The guest was able to do an impromptu talk about Amazonian bats.
This has been a great week to see babies! Twice we saw monk saki monkeys with babies, as well as hoatzins during our picnic breakfast in the Sapote River. Breakfast was exciting! In addition to the monkeys, we observed hook-billed kites flying over us, snail kite, lineated woodpecker, kiskadees, turquoise tanager and red-throated caracara.
While we were piranha fishing in El Dorado Creek, we spotted this three-toed sloth. She was just hanging down sleeping. I estimate that she is only about one year old, and just left by her parents. So so cute! Everyone was able to take many pictures
A whole family of night or owl monkeys was checking out our group in Yanallpa Creek. This is the same creek where we saw saddle-backed tamarin with some babies.
This Amazon cruise isn’t over yet! Excited to see what we find tonight. - Freddy
Rhinos all around the world are in serious trouble. Poaching is at an all-time high, rising from 333 rhinos killed in South Africa for their horns back in 2010 to more than 1,200 killed last year. And the bloodshed shows no signs of stopping.
The last Vietnamese rhino was shot and killed in 2009, and in November of 2011 the western black rhinoceros was declared extinct by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN). The black rhino, Javan rhino and Sumatran rhino are all currently listed as critically endangered, with less than 100 of the latter two species left.
The white rhinoceros, of which an estimated 20,000 remain in the wild, is not on the Endangered Species yet. But some rhino conservation experts suggest that, if poaching continues at its current rate, rhinos may disappear from the wild entirely within the next 30 years.
The Root of the Rhino Poaching Problem
At the beginning of the 20th century there were more than 500,000 rhinos spread across Africa and Asia. A century later, less than 30,000 remain. And the reason why basically boils down to a lie.
Rhino horn has historically been used to cure a variety of ailments throughout Asia. In traditional medicine, the horn is shaved or ground into a powder and dissolved in water, then used to treat fever, rheumatism, headache, gout and myriad other disorders (including cancer). As supply went down and demand went up, so did the prices: Rhino horns are currently worth around $45,000 a pound on the black market, making them more valuable than gold.
Unfortunately there’s not a single scientific study to back up the claims that rhino horn has any medicinal properties whatsoever. Rhino horn is actually made of keratin – the same protein found in hair, fingernails, horse hooves and turtle beaks. And yet still these majestic creatures continue to be killed at an increasingly alarming rate.
Why Rhinos Matter
There are around 25,000 rhinos left in Africa, where they are considered one of the “Big Five” animals that travelers want to see on safari (along with lions, leopards, elephants and Cape buffalo).
For the 11 countries that feature the “Big Five” as a tourist attraction – including Botswana, Zambia, Uganda, Namibia, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Malawi – these iconic species are at the top of an ecosystem that ultimately cannot survive without them.
“Africa generates about $80 billion in ecotourism revenue each year,” explains conservation advocate and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dereck Joubert. “Most of that is focused on seeing big cats, elephants and rhinos. If we have beautiful lodges in pristine landscapes, but no big wildlife, that model would collapse immediately. Without those tourism dollars, we’d see increased poverty in many countries and, as a result, increased poaching for bush meat. It’s like a plague that ends in the total eradication of natural wildlife structures, and further damage to sustainable economics in Africa.”
Some Good News for Rhino Conservation
If there’s good news for rhinos, it’s that they have one of the most outspoken and politically active networks within the wildlife conservation community. Organizations such as Save The Rhino, World Wildlife Fund and the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust are all extremely active in raising awareness and funds for rhino conservation initiatives.
Great Plains Conservation, a foundation started by Dereck Joubert and his wife Beverly, has also launched Rhinos Without Borders, an initiative to save the rhino by translocating 100 of them from South Africa to Botswana in order to protect them from the tragic rise in poaching. To do this, they’ll need to raise nearly $5 million, as the costs to capture, transport, quarantine and release these animals will average about $45,000 per rhino.
Fortunately, these grassroots conservation initiatives are gradually making a difference in fighting back against the rise in poaching. The black rhino population in Africa has more than doubled since 1993, when it reached a low of just 2,300 animals. And the southern white rhino is one of the world’s great Cinderella stories: From a population of around 50 in the wild in the early 1900s, this subspecies has grown in numbers to over 20,000, making it the most populous of all rhino species.
But, with rhinos being poached at an average rate of one every seven hours, the time for action is now.
See Rhino in the Wild
International Expeditions offers a range of small-group African safaris in both East and Southern Africa. You can also take advantage of IE's 35 years of Africa travel expertise by allowing our experts to plan a private safari.
Everyone knows that the Amazon River basin is home to some of the most impressive biodiversity on the planet, including more than one-third of all known wildlife species in the world. But significantly less well known are the ribereños, who inhabit villages spread out along the banks of the mighty river.
The ribereños of the Peruvian Amazon are an ethnically diverse people made up of the descendants of Europeans, detribalized native and their mixed-race (or mestizo) offspring. Because they live on a floodplain subject to remarkable environmental changes, these “river people” are notoriously adaptable and resilient.
Their life revolves around the river– washing clothes in it, bathing in it, using its water for cooking, and reaping its harvest for sustenance. And, since there are no roads, the ribereños use the river to get everywhere they need to go.
Despite being the most significant population in the Peruvian Amazon outside Iquitos, in terms of numbers, the ribereños remain virtually unknown. But here are five reasons why they will ultimately prove to be one of the most memorable aspects of an Amazon River Cruise:
The arrival of a ship in a Ribereños village always feels a bit like Christmas morning. All of the children seem excited to come out to welcome their visitors, but some hang back shyly while the bolder ones immediately begin using the boat as their personal jungle gym. Their energy proves incredibly infectious.
Younger kids may not ever have seen pictures of themselves before, so posing for photos and politely asking to see the results quickly becomes a popular past time.
Visiting the village’s one-room schoolhouse is an experience you’ll never forget, offering an opportunity for engaging cultural interactions that usually result in big smiles all around. After all, is there anything more amusing to a kid than watching grown-ups do “The Hokey-Pokey”?
LEARNING ABOUT RIBEREÑOS LIFE
As you stroll through the village, you gradually learn more about the typical Ribereños way of life. These communities are often focused on farming, but fishing, hunting, extraction of forest products, and waged labor are also common ways of making a living.
The women traditionally do most of the work at home, cleaning house, minding the children and roasting manioc (also known as yuca or cassava), a root vegetable that has been a staple of the Peruvian diet for thousands of years. Because it contains residual cyanide, manioc must be roasted over a fire for six hours, turning constantly to avoid burning.
It’s a special treat to be welcomed inside a typical Ribereños home– simple but well-kept wooden houses with a thatch roof, elevated on stilts in case the rising river waters come up over the bank. Most have just two bedrooms for the parents and their children, along with simple kitchens where they cook up fish, manioc and apple snails, a local delicacy.
RECEIVING A SHAMAN’S BLESSING
Arguably the most unique experience you can have in the Peruvian Amazon is the opportunity to consult with a local shaman.
This oral tradition, passed down from generation to generation for thousands of years, is in danger of dying out, as there are few young people willing to undergo the strict regimen required to study shamanic practices. Every plant in the Amazon rainforest serves a purpose, and most ribereños will go to a shaman for healing first before seeking help from traditional Western medicine.
At the end of your meeting, the shaman may offer to perform a sacred blessing ceremony, which involves him waving a small bundle of herbs above your head and chanting melodically, blowing tobacco smoke (known as a purifying agent) on your head, and then blowing it into your hands for your to rub over your body. It’s an exhilarating and indescribably powerful experience.
SHOPPING FOR HANDMADE CRAFTS
Fortunately, there are no malls or stores along the Amazon River. But that doesn’t mean you have to go home without a souvenir. Most ribereños villages are home to exceptional craftsmen, and sometimes you even meet families selling goods from canoes along the river.
Traditional crafts include elaborately carved gourds featuring images of the Amazon’s indigenous wildlife, woven baskets made from colorfully dyed textiles, tribal jewelry fashioned from local seeds and beads, and even miniature boats made to look just like IE’s ship, La Estrella Amazonica.
SUPPORTING CONSERVATION OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON
As part of International Expeditions’ 35-year commitment to preserving natural habitats and improving the welfare of local communities, we have created numerous programs in the Peruvian Amazon.
These include creating water treatment plants in numerous ribereños villages to provide them with clean drinking water; co-creating an Adopt-A-School program with CONAPAC to provide rural students with school supplies while promoting environmental education in their communities; and funding the Las Malvinas Garden at a public school in Iquitos, which is used to teach environmental awareness, biology and language arts, and is integrated into the school’s curriculum.
So perhaps the best aspect of visiting the ribereños is knowing that your trip helps to support efforts to conserve the precious flora, fauna and cultural traditions of this incredible region.
TRAVEL TO THE AMAZON
Inspired to meet the riberenos people and explore the famed waters of the Amazon River? International Expeditions offers year-round Amazon River cruises along with land-based options. Check out IE's signature 10-day Amazon Cruise or the 7-day Amazon River & Rainforest Tour, named one of Fodor's Best River Cruises of 2014.
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve ranks among the most beloved ecotourism attractions in Costa Rica, drawing around 70,000 visitors each year.
It’s easy to see why: With six different ecological zones (including 90% pristine forest habitat), the reserve boasts extraordinary biodiversity, containing around 100 mammal species, 120 reptilian and amphibian species, 400 bird species, and more than 2,500 plant species. It also has a Nature Center, bat jungle, butterfly gardens, frog pond, serpentarium, and an array of hiking trails, suspension bridges and ziplines.
But, long before the reserve was established in 1972, the nearby town of Monteverde had been settled by American expats who moved to Costa Rica in search of a more peaceful way of life. And it was these people who originally decided to protect the forest habitat from development.
THE GREAT QUAKER ESCAPE
The roots of what became known as Monteverde, Costa Rica date back to the late 1940s. Quakers – also known as the Religious Society of Friends – are a notoriously peaceful, anti-war people. After four young men from their community were imprisoned for a year as conscientious objectors to the Korean War draft, a group of 44 Quakers (comprised of 11 families) moved from Fairhope, Alabama (just hours from IE's home offices south of Birmingham) to the San Jose area in 1950 in search of a better life.
They were drawn to Costa Rica in part due to its climate and the agricultural possibilities it offered, and in part by President Pepe Figueres’ invitation for foreigners to help develop his Central American country. But perhaps most important of all was the fact that Costa Rica had recently disbanded its military entirely, offering the Friends (as Quakers call themselves) an opportunity to start fresh and live peacefully.
THE BIRTH OF MONTEVERDE
The Friends relocated to the San Jose area briefly while searching for a permanent home in Costa Rica. They eventually found a 3500-acre swath of land straddling the Continental Divide in the Cordillera de Tilarán mountain range, near Puntarenas. They named it Monteverde, which means “Green Mountain,” for the verdant plants that grew there.
After purchasing the land, they divided sections of it up to create farms for the individual families, while reserving a central area for their mutual use. This was where they eventually built the Monteverde Friends School, a Meeting House and a community-driven business, the Monteverde Cheese Factory. Tours of the Factory, where you can learn about the area’s history and sample their 17 cheeses and delicious homemade ice creams, are still available daily.
By the late 1960s biologists had begun to conduct research in the Monteverde area at the request of Costa Rica’s National Planning Office. After Quaker leader Hubert Mendenhall took conservation scientists from San Jose’s Tropical Science Center to see the primary forests that surrounded the community, they recommended that the Friends should preserve them in order to protect their homes and water sources.
The Quakers soon set aside 1300 acres they called the Watershed Property, which ultimately became among the first private nature reserves in Costa Rica.
MONTEVERDE CLOUD FOREST RESERVE
In 1972, George Powell came to Monteverde to do doctoral research on the birds of the area, which include species such as the swallow-tailed kite, the piratic flycatcher and the resplendant quetzal. Amazed by the remarkable biological diversity of the cloud forest, Powell was equally alarmed by the damage being done to Monteverde by hunters and land squatters.
The young grad student subsequently arranged a deal with the Guacimal Land Company (from whom the Quakers had bought their land) to donate land if he could form a civic association to help oversee the property. Coincidentally, the Tropical Science Center had a program to create private reserves for purposes of research and ecological education. With their help, Powell used his personal money to buy out several squatters and ultimately acquired 810 acres from GLC for a grand total of 1 colón (less than one U.S. dollar) in 1973.
Now, more than 40 years later, Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve has grown to encompass more than 46,000 acres of cloud forest, providing protection to a diverse array of flora and fauna. But it might never have happened if it weren’t for a small group of Friends from Alabama simply searching for a more peaceful way of life.
TRAVEL TO COSTA RICA & MONTEVERDE
International Expeditions has offered small-group Costa Rica tours for 34 years. Choose between naturalist-guided adventures encompassing the natural and human history of Costa Rica, or enjoy our bespoke journeys, ideal for families.
Amazon River cruise Expedition leader Angel Cardenas is reporting from our small-group excursions this week.
Early in the morning we went out along Supay River. Along the river's mouth we found giant water lilies, including one with a flower. Our first stop for photos and we weren't even into the river!
Our small group continued into the Supay looking for wildlife. During the excursion we found a beautiful plum throated cotinga, three toed sloth, long nosed bats, dusky titi monkeys and the smallest monkey on Earth, pygmy marmoset. A glass tree frog jumped on the excursion boat and took a short ride on a guest!
This morning we also visited a local village "11 de Agosto" along Ucayali River. The president of the community welcomed us and walked with us through the village. Along the way, he showed us how he is making a canoe using cedar and catahua wood. Plus, he showed guests how to harvest yuca (manioc). During our visit, we had a chance to visit a local family and see their house.
Our last stop in the village was the school house where we have a great time with some interaction between kids and our guests.
After an afternoon map orientation and review of our wildlife checklist, we set off into the Ucayali River again. This was a productive excursion where we spotted oriole blackbird and green tree iguana. But our best find was macaws on top of dead palm trees. We found a flock of red bellied macaws and a blue-and-yellow macaw before heading back to La Estrella Amazonica.
Another interesting day!
India is a remarkable place to visit for many reasons, but one of the most compelling is the richness of its culture. This is one of the few countries left on Earth with a living classical culture, unbroken since ancient times. You can visit an ancient Hindu temple and watch rituals that have been performed in the same place, in the same way, since the dawn of time.
But India is also a thriving, bustling, modern country. The same pandit (or priest) who performed the ancient ritual might very well take a smart phone out of the pocket of his robe and check his email.
It's this juxtaposition of old and new that makes the culture of India so fascinating. Here's a look at some traditions in India that still flourish today:
Mumbai is India's most densely-packed, fast-paced and westernized city. Like New York, it throbs with life night and day, but the beat moves to a time-honored rhythm. Mumbai offers an intriguing juxtaposition of old and new culture, and you can spend days just wandering the city, soaking it all up.
If you’re lucky, you may stumble upon the tiffin-wallahs (delivery boys who ferry stacked stainless-steel bowls of food home-cooked by wives to their husbands’ office) outside Churchgate train station. Often illiterate, these delivery men were made famous by the movie The Lunch Box, which centers around a rare meal mix-up.
The dhobis of Dhobi Ghat wash clothes in open-air tubs and hang them out to dry (as they have been for about 140 years), right within sight of one of the city's main train stations, Mahalaxmi. While there, you can visit the 200-year-old Mahalaxmi Temple, one of the most famous in the city, and partake of traditional Hindu rituals, such as offering lotus flowers to the goddess Lakshmi.
Colorful Rajasthan is India's most popular state with tourists for a reason. It's everyone's idea of "fantastical India.” The men wear out-sized turbans, the women wear neon-bright saris, camels and peacocks abound, and fairytale forts rise from the baked earth of the desert.
In Rajasthan, the traditional culture of India is very much alive and well, showcased in lots of lively festivals. Many people know of the Pushkar Camel Fair, but Jaipur is party town for the Elephant Festival on Holi and during the three-day Teej Festival in summer. Teej is a woman's festival that celebrates marital bliss and the onset of the monsoon rains. Women dress up, dance, sing and enjoy swinging on traditional swing seats.
The desert state is also home to a cornucopia of traditional crafts. Block printing on cotton dates back to the 12th century, and you can visit block-printing workshops and buy beautiful clothing made with this technique. Jaipur is an important center for gem stones and several types of jewelry making, including enamel work. You can even visit a wholesaler, custom-making your own jewelry from semi-precious stones as a treasured souvenir.
Delhi is India's capital, and the favorite city of many Indian travelers. A lot of it has to do with the city's wealth of historical riches.
At least seven major empires have made their capital in this strategic spot on north India’s Yamuna River. Each has left behind monuments, tombs, forts and, in the case of the British, an entire planned city: Lutyens Delhi. There are three UNESCO World Heritage Sites here – Qutab Minar, Humayun's Tomb and Red Fort – and Delhi recently applied for the prestigious tag of a World Heritage City.
As in all of India's metropolitan areas, the traditional and modern co-exist in a state of dynamic harmony here, and you can easily find traditional culture. This is especially true when you visit the historical monuments, during festivals, at special occasions like weddings, and in particularly colorful neighborhoods (such as Old Delhi).
Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, famous as the builder of the Taj Mahal, moved his capital from Agra to Delhi in the mid-17th century. He built the Red Fort as his power base directly opposite the Chandni Chowk (a.k.a. Moonlight Square). Whatever poetic intention he had for Chandni Chowk has been obfuscated by the masses of people, tangled webs of electrical wires and a profusion of shops, as well as every conceivable vehicle known to man.
But it's here in crowded Chandni Chowk that you will find so much of traditional Indian culture. It's here that all brides venture for wedding paraphernalia. It's here that foodies gather for famous street snacks, such as parathas at Paranthe Wali Galli, freshly made jalebis, and sweets and chaat at Haldiram's.
There is an old saying about Delhi: Whosoever builds their capital here will lose it. It has proved true over and over again. But luckily for us, all those lost empires left behind a wealth of rich traditions for those who are open to the magic of India’s culture to enjoy.
How to Go
Inspired to explore the fascinating cultures of India? International Expeditions offers travel to India focusing on exploration of the cultural highlights while being immersed in the nature of multiple national parks. Check out IE's incredible India tours and start planning your adventure.
This morning on our Amazon cruise we went to explore the Sapote River. Since it was cloudy and with a soft morning drizzle the wildlife activity was great!
We found a Tamandua Anteater, often called the Lesser Anteater because it is much smaller than its relative, the giant anteater. The Anteater we observed this morning was a melanistic (all-black) one that is even harder to find. Of course, one of the most distinguishing qualities of the Tamandua is its awful smell! A gland at the base of its tail releases a smell similar to a skunk to protect it from predators. On our excursion we also saw three Caiman Lizards. - Dennis
Newly installed WiFi onboard on our new riverboat means we are lucky to now recieve frequent updates on wildlife sightings from our Amazon River cruises. Expedition leader Angel Cardenas is reporting from our small-group excursions this week.
This morning heavy rain kept us onboard La Estrella Amazonica until lunch, but there was still so much to do, starting with a lecture by guest expert Ed Smith. Ed is an Amazonia Biologist for Smithsonian's National Zoo, where he studies and cares for hundreds of Amazonian plants and animals, and involved with a variety of research. We also took the time to review the list of wildlife we've already observed, learn more about the IE-supported clean water project and enjoy a cooking lesson with our chef.
After the morning rain the sun finally came our! It was the perfect time to explore Dorado River, an interesting black water tributary in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve. While here we found a variety of interesting wildlife: Plum Throated Cotinga, White Throated Toucan, Hoatzin, Festive Parrot, Blue Crowned Parrot, Cream Colored Woodpecker, Horned Screamer, Muscovy Duck, Caiman Lizard, White Spectacle Caiman, Fringe Lipped Tree Frog, Giant Cane Toad and other species.
Time for a fun happy hour with our Amazon band and a tasty cocktail before dinner! - Angel
Up in the cloud forest, near the northern Nicaraguan city of Matagalpa, sits a private nature reserve dating back over 120 years. Selva Negra (which translates to “The Black Forest”) was founded in the late 1800s by German-born immigrants who were encouraged to settle the area by the Nicaraguan government. The 300-acre reserve is home to a wild array of flora and fauna, as well as one of the country's most prestigious coffee plantations.
Most of the Selva Negra Cloud Forest Reserve is situated above 3000 feet in a tropical forest that receives about 10% of its total moisture directly through contact with the clouds rather than traditional rainfall. Cloud forests like Selva Negra are intense biological districts that contain an incredibly diverse and intense arrangement of life, both vegetative and animal.
THE FLORA OF SELVA NEGRA
The name Selva Negra likely comes from the fact that the canopy of the forest is so thick that it allows just a tiny fraction of light to reach the forest floor. The result is an extremely dark place, even in the daytime.
Among those canopy-creators is the most important tree in Selva Negra – the strangler fig – which grows to 160 feet tall and casts a massive net over the sky. Incredibly important to this particular cloud forest, the strangler fig’s fruit is consumed by around 70% of the area's animal population.
There are also some 50 species of orchids that grow within the nature reserve. The most prominent of those orchids is the Arpophyllum Giganteum, which sprouts from from dead fig trees. Also found in the cloud forest of Selva Negra are nearly 40 species of mushrooms.
THE FAUNA OF SELVA NEGRA
In the cloud forest, animals are more often heard than seen. Not only is the vegetation extremely dense and the light very low, but most of the wildlife that calls Selva Negra home are well-camouflaged and nocturnal.
The most commonly-seen mammal in the reserve is the howler monkey, which is typically heard long before you spot it. The rousing call of this species, which is found throughout Central and South America, can be heard for up to a mile away. The howler monkey is one of the more intimidating alarm clocks you'll be sure to hear at dawn in the cloud forest.
With all the decaying organic matter throughout the cloud forest, there’s a significant insect population there, the most interesting of which are the beetles. There are also 19 species of amphibians and 33 species of reptiles found in the park. The butterflies of the reserve are always popular, especially the famed blue morpho.
But it’s primarily the birds that draw people into this beautiful nature reserve. Selva Negra is home to over 200 different bird species and is, in many ways, the crossroads and meeting ground for birds from the northern and southern hemispheres. Within the bounds of the reserve, you can spot everything from egrets to kingfishers, and from hawks to hummingbirds.
OTHER THINGS TO DO IN SELVA NEGRA
Visit the Coffee Plantation: The Selva Negra Estate has been producing coffee since the 1890s, when German immigrants founded the establishment. Some of their descendants are still here, planting and plucking coffee beans today. Their coffee is grown around 4,000 feet above sea level and under shade, and is 100% organic and sustainable. International Expeditions' guests have an opportunity to watch the process of coffee production in a program called “From Seed to Cup.” Harvest season for the coffee beans runs from November to February.
- Hiking: If you're looking to explore the nature reserve on foot, there are 14 superb trails of varying length and difficulty that carve through the cloud forest. Visitors are welcome to enjoy the trails on their own, but it’s even more rewarding when IE's highly trained naturalist guides show you a little bit about the forest and the critters that live within it.
- Horseback Riding: Of the 14 hiking trails within the reserve, six are also made available to horse riders. Getting out on horseback and exploring the Selva Negra gives visitors a beautiful perspective of the forest without having to get their feet too muddy.
DISCOVER NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC TRAVELER'S NICARAGUA TOUR OF A LIFETIME
Ready to explore Nicaragua and the Selva Negra Reserve? Come see why National Geographic Traveler named International Expeditions' Nicaragua tour one of the world's best escorted tours.